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文件類型:本館出版品
題名(中):中國、日本、臺灣「和」文化的世紀挑戰
題名(英):A Century's Challenge for "Peace" Culture in China, Japan and Taiwan
作者:謝政諭(Chen-yu Hsieh)
期刊名(中):孫學研究(Sunology Research)
ISSN:1996-265-7
出刊頻率:半年刊
出版年月(民國):民國103年11月12日
出版年月(西元):2014/11/12
卷期:第17期
頁次:P019-051
關鍵詞(中):戰爭和平霸道王道合作民族主義辯證發展
關鍵詞(英):warspeacehegemonismkingly waynationalismdialectical development
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摘要(中):  近100年來中國、日本、臺灣,如何從紛爭與戰爭走向和平,本文將以歷史學家湯恩比(Toynbee)的「挑戰與回應」(challenge vs. response,亦即C-R模式),來解讀近百年來中、日兩國從傳統東方專制國家躍升為「大國」的過程。梁啟超在維新變法失敗後,亡命日本,觀察到日本的富強之道,心有所感地說:「取『道』日本、回到中國」,這句話具有多元深遠的意義,也就是日本人在明治維新的過程中,所追求的民族團結、國家富強之道,足以當中國的借鏡。本文亦將以辯證發展的觀點來審視中、日、臺「和」文化的世紀挑戰。
  日本明治時期思想人物,普遍認為日本要力挽狂瀾,必須轉向「脫亞入歐」以求國富民強,通往文明之路,也因此醞釀了強國與強權意識。福澤諭吉在其著作《文明論概略》討論到「日本的文明化應以西方文明為標的」。又世界各國可分為「文明國」、「半開化國」以及「野蠻國」。19世紀末、20世紀上半葉多數著作,一再引導日本人民發揮進取、甚至是歌頌戰爭的作品。這些著作大事宣揚日本大和魂精神,一步步強化國家主義,並以日本人民的一生是為天皇盡忠為鵠的。一般認為這樣的理念對於後來日本發動1895年的甲午戰爭、1905年的日俄戰爭、1930年及1937年侵略中國戰爭,具有築基與激化的作用。
  1924年孫中山在日本神戶演講「大亞洲主義」,他說:「大亞洲主義……是什麼問題呢?……就是文化問題……東方文化是王道,西方文化是霸道:王道是仁義道德,霸道是功利強權;講仁義道德,是由正義公理來感化人;講功利強權,是用洋槍大砲來壓迫人。」──日本文化要取霸道或王道,「就在你們國民去詳審慎擇。」
  中、日、臺結束20世紀上半葉戰爭蹂躪與國族動亂,各國進入和平的大環境與勞資合作的文化,加上東亞民族勤勞節儉的優質傳統文化,因此創造了日本與東亞4小龍的經濟榮景,隨後中國大陸在鄧小平改革開放的宏觀理念領導下,也開啟了世紀以來未有的繁榮景象,究其實可歸結到東亞「和的文化」,也可謂是經濟上「和氣生財」、「以德服人」的王道文化。
  2013年4月臺灣與日本在釣魚臺海域上簽署《漁業協定》,就是一項展現東亞合作與和平的成效。日、臺以和解的理念,善意、理性的溝通,加上透過合作議題,未來共同開發或許是釣島爭議最佳的解決途徑。東亞政治家必需面對20世紀的戰爭責任與國族動亂,避免重挖歷史的傷痛。吾人相信「和」的文化是中、日、臺為凝聚民族、安定社會、治理國家與國際交往的主體力量與基本原理。
摘要(外文):  I intends to research on how China, Japan and Taiwan have marched from conflicts and wars to peace. The thesis is titled A Century's Challenge for "Peace" Culture in East Asia. Under the historian Toynbee's challenge vs. response model (C-R model), this essay aims to review in the past century how China and Japan have risen from traditional eastern authoritative to strong thriving countries. Liang Qichao went to Japan after a failure in the political reform. He made an observation and was impressed by the prosperity in the archipelago country, thus the comment, "We should bring what we learned from Japan back to China." The words entail the Japanese exemplified how its people joined their forces as multiple and consolidated the country. This is what the Chinese should take as example and reflect on themselves. This essay also uses a dialectical analysis to show how various factors have influenced the peace culture development of China, Japan and Taiwan in the past century.
  The thinkers during Meiji Restoration held the views that Japan should look to the Europeans instead of remaining just a part of Asia and that they should thrive and become civilized as soon as possible. This gives rise to the ideology of being a strong power. Yukichi Fukuzawa (1834-1901) in his writing, An Outline of a Theory of Civilization, he discussed the necessity that the Japanese road to civilization should take western civilization as their goal. In his view, all nations in the world could be divided into civilized, semi-civilized, and barbaric countries. Large numbers of writings in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century encouraged Japanese people to be aggressive and beautified the meaning of wars. They promoted the Japanese national spirits and consolidated their nationalism and the loyalty to their emperor. It is widely considered that this ideology contributed to the first Sino-Japanese war in 1895, Russo-Japanese War in 1905, and invasions into China in 1930 and 1937, all of which started by Japan.
  Dr. Sun Yat-sen spoke in Kobe in 1924 on "the Great Asianism significance". "What does the Great Asianism mean to us? "he detailed. "It means cultural issues. The eastern culture is based on ruling principles while western culture is promoted with hegemony. To rule means to govern with righteousness and morality, and affect people with justice. On the other hand, hegemony encourages utilitarianism and to be the strongest, and controls others with guns and violences." He questioned whether Japan was asking for the right way of ruling, or the hegemonic way. "It is you, the Japan citizens, who are to deliberate and choose."
  China, Japan and Taiwan ended upheavals in the first half of the twentieth century. These nations have entered a peaceful environment and commercial era where labors collaborate with the capitalists. The well-known industrious East Asian people have created prosperity among Japan and the four smaller rising countries. China started its era under the lead of Deng Xiaoping and has thrived. The flourishing East Asia is rooted in the culture of seeking peace. In business we cooperate with peace. In politics, we rule with an aim to achieve peace and affect people with righteousness.
  In April, 2003, Taiwan and Japan signed the Fishing Agreement in Diaoyu island area. This is an act of peace and collaboration in East Asian countries. Japanese and Taiwan extract a sense of compromise from their ideas, communicate on the basis of good will and rationality. They will develop what may be the best solution for China, Japan, and Taiwan over the Diaoyu island dispute. East Asia politicians should face the consequences of wars in the twentieth century, reflect the lessons on themselves and prevent the past mistakes from reoccurring. We believe the sense of the"peace and cooperation" culture will serve as the strength and principle behind racial consolidation, social stabilization, political and foreign affairs in China, Japan, and Taiwan.
出版者:國立國父紀念館
出版地:臺北市
備註:GPN:2009503228
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