|摘要(外文):|| Sun Yat-Sen's Great Commonwealth is based on traditional Chinese humanist beliefs, human evolutionary theory and progressive public and social service advocacy. He believed that the human nature's optimistic and cooperative outlook eventually would overcome a family of nations based on the individual racial, class-based, religious and cultural hatred and strife. For the advancement of benevolent Chinese civilization, he preferred the eventual establishment of a modern democratic humanistic Confucian Commonwealth based on his Three Principles of the People. |
The underlying difference between the idea of his Great Commonwealth or Plato's Republic and the Absolute True Society (either Communist or Idealistic) is that they are fundamentally different in their trust/distrust in human nature. Those who believed that human nature is basically good will adopt an evolutionary approach to realize their goal of a Great Commonwealth or Ideal State. Those who believed that human nature is bad will tend to favor revolutionary means to achieve their goals. The former believes in cooperation, will emphasize education and the gradual, peaceful means to pursue the Ideal State, while the latter tends to emphasize violence or struggle to force others to conform.
Thus Sun Yat-Sen's Great Commonwealth is a humanitarian undertaking based on the cooperative belief in the best of human nature. It is optimistic, peaceful, based on mutual trust and respect, in the best tradition of Chinese wang-tai（王道）culture.
One of Sun Yat-Sen's most insightful criticism is that Marx is a social pathologist who knew what was wrong with society but that Marx was not a social psychologist who knew how to cure of the ills of society. His fundamental belief in the advancement of civilization due to the cooperation of human interests, and not through the continuous struggle of economic, political, social classes led to his description of Marx as a social pathologist. Thus Sun rejects the theory of natural selection and social Darwinism and dialectical Marxist doctrine of class determinism in favor of peaceful and natural evolution.
The ideal of the Great Commonwealth, or "Grand Union," as mentioned in the Book of Rites（禮記禮運大同篇）, is Sun Yat-Sen's dream of a World Community in the final stage of human evolution. Even though Sun Yat-Sen deemed it to be a futuristic utopia which cannot be realized in the immediate stages of development, but he was forever an optimist.
For the realization of a Chinese Republic in the early twentieth century, Sun Yat-Sen developed a set of comprehensive military and political strategies. His insightful design is still theoretically and practically feasible in the development of modern China and in dealing with contemporary world affairs. By nature, Sun Yat-Sen was a reformer. By necessity, he became a revolutionary and a very successful one at that. In regards to contemporary world affairs, if Sun Yat-Sen were alive today, he would not rule out military means, as a last resort, in reunifying or re-integrating China after exhausting all peaceful measures.