|題名(英):||A Century's Challenge for "Peace" Culture in China, Japan and Taiwan|
|關鍵詞(英):||wars；peace；hegemonism；kingly way；nationalism；dialectical development|
|摘要(中):|| 近100年來中國、日本、臺灣，如何從紛爭與戰爭走向和平，本文將以歷史學家湯恩比（Toynbee）的「挑戰與回應」（challenge vs. response，亦即C-R模式），來解讀近百年來中、日兩國從傳統東方專制國家躍升為「大國」的過程。梁啟超在維新變法失敗後，亡命日本，觀察到日本的富強之道，心有所感地說：「取『道』日本、回到中國」，這句話具有多元深遠的意義，也就是日本人在明治維新的過程中，所追求的民族團結、國家富強之道，足以當中國的借鏡。本文亦將以辯證發展的觀點來審視中、日、臺「和」文化的世紀挑戰。|
|摘要(外文):|| I intends to research on how China, Japan and Taiwan have marched from conflicts and wars to peace. The thesis is titled A Century's Challenge for "Peace" Culture in East Asia. Under the historian Toynbee's challenge vs. response model (C-R model), this essay aims to review in the past century how China and Japan have risen from traditional eastern authoritative to strong thriving countries. Liang Qichao went to Japan after a failure in the political reform. He made an observation and was impressed by the prosperity in the archipelago country, thus the comment, "We should bring what we learned from Japan back to China." The words entail the Japanese exemplified how its people joined their forces as multiple and consolidated the country. This is what the Chinese should take as example and reflect on themselves. This essay also uses a dialectical analysis to show how various factors have influenced the peace culture development of China, Japan and Taiwan in the past century.|
The thinkers during Meiji Restoration held the views that Japan should look to the Europeans instead of remaining just a part of Asia and that they should thrive and become civilized as soon as possible. This gives rise to the ideology of being a strong power. Yukichi Fukuzawa (1834-1901) in his writing, An Outline of a Theory of Civilization, he discussed the necessity that the Japanese road to civilization should take western civilization as their goal. In his view, all nations in the world could be divided into civilized, semi-civilized, and barbaric countries. Large numbers of writings in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century encouraged Japanese people to be aggressive and beautified the meaning of wars. They promoted the Japanese national spirits and consolidated their nationalism and the loyalty to their emperor. It is widely considered that this ideology contributed to the first Sino-Japanese war in 1895, Russo-Japanese War in 1905, and invasions into China in 1930 and 1937, all of which started by Japan.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen spoke in Kobe in 1924 on "the Great Asianism significance". "What does the Great Asianism mean to us? "he detailed. "It means cultural issues. The eastern culture is based on ruling principles while western culture is promoted with hegemony. To rule means to govern with righteousness and morality, and affect people with justice. On the other hand, hegemony encourages utilitarianism and to be the strongest, and controls others with guns and violences." He questioned whether Japan was asking for the right way of ruling, or the hegemonic way. "It is you, the Japan citizens, who are to deliberate and choose."
China, Japan and Taiwan ended upheavals in the first half of the twentieth century. These nations have entered a peaceful environment and commercial era where labors collaborate with the capitalists. The well-known industrious East Asian people have created prosperity among Japan and the four smaller rising countries. China started its era under the lead of Deng Xiaoping and has thrived. The flourishing East Asia is rooted in the culture of seeking peace. In business we cooperate with peace. In politics, we rule with an aim to achieve peace and affect people with righteousness.
In April, 2003, Taiwan and Japan signed the Fishing Agreement in Diaoyu island area. This is an act of peace and collaboration in East Asian countries. Japanese and Taiwan extract a sense of compromise from their ideas, communicate on the basis of good will and rationality. They will develop what may be the best solution for China, Japan, and Taiwan over the Diaoyu island dispute. East Asia politicians should face the consequences of wars in the twentieth century, reflect the lessons on themselves and prevent the past mistakes from reoccurring. We believe the sense of the"peace and cooperation" culture will serve as the strength and principle behind racial consolidation, social stabilization, political and foreign affairs in China, Japan, and Taiwan.