|摘要(外文):|| After the Sino-Japanese War (1984-1985), and the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, for the scramble of foreign aggressions, the Chinese elites had drum for a radical program of institutional change, or claimed for a revolution to establish a democratic republic. There are two wings, the one is the Royalists such as K'ang Yu-wei and Liang Ch'i-ch'ao, who had published a pro-emperor organ, New Citizen Journal (Hsin-min ts'ung-pao), which claimed to reform and set up a constitutional monarchy. The other is the Revolutionist such as Dr.Sun Yat-sen and Chang Ping-lin, who had published a monthly organ, People's Report (Min Pao), which initiated a revolution to overthrow the Manchu emperor and to establish a republicanism.|
One of the Royalists leading figures, K'ang Yu-wei had said that the republicanism cannot effective in China, and the constitutional monarchy is beneficial for Chinese political situation. Liang Ch'i-ch'ao believed that the republicanism is unfeasible for China. A younger scholar Tan Shi-tong had preached to smash Chinese traditional thoughts and anti-Manchu imperial court, but he was caught and executed after the Hundred Days of Reform's failed.
Among the Revolutionist leading figures, such as Chang Ping-lin, promoted anti-Manchuism and criticized K'ang's disciple. He not only had slandered the Manchu imperial court, but also exerted great influence in young students. The most notably Tsou Jung's literature, The Revolutionary Army, was resisted anti-Manchu racism. It was given an apocalypse to Chinese students. The most important, Dr. Sun Yat-sen only tangentially showed great foresight to advocated the republicanism and found the republic of China.
This text focus on Sun's political, social, and economics ideas which was shown in his major work, The Three Principles of the People (San Min Chu I) which discusses nationalism, democracy, and people's welfare. Many of his proposals are now considered the best solutions for China's modernization.